No information is available for either humans or animals on the potential cancer risk following inhalation or dermal exposure to toxaphene.
Although studies on the relationship between chronic exposure to toxaphene and cancer in humans are lacking, studies in rats and mice indicate that toxaphene causes cancer in rodents. Increased incidences of thyroid and hepatic carcinomas were observed in animals chronically exposed to high doses of toxaphene.
Some populations may be exposed to higher amounts of toxaphene because a large portion of their diet is composed of game animals that bioaccumulate toxaphene.
The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) determined that toxaphene may reasonable be anticipated to be a human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) determined that toxaphene may possibly cause cancer in humans. According to the U.S. EPA Carcinogen List there is a sufficient evidence of toxaphene carcinogenicity from animal studies with inadequate or no data from epidemiologic studies in humans, there for it is classified as a Category B2, Probable human carcinogen.