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Tajikistan

Kanibadamski pesticides burial place is located in Sugd region in 7 km from Kanibadam city in southeast direction. Territory of this burial place is about 2 ha. The relief of this territory is hilly with some dry ditches and ravines. The territory of this burial place is located hypsometrically, 275 m higher that Kanibadam city with the inclination of relief to the city, where there are two main cannels and seven wells of various purposes. Availability of dry ditches, two of which have their roots in the burial places, stipulates in great extent the flowing of sediments. 

Before choosing of plot for Kanibadamski burial place no any engineertechnical, hydrogeological or sanitaryecological investigations were conducted. Certain researches were conducted only in 1990. As a result was revealed that this plot, from geological point of view, contains mudstone stream sediments with pebbles, boulders and gravel. Such layer is characterized by high penetrability for precipitations with components of various substances, including pesticides. The bottom and sides of trenches are not isolated. That is why, they are potentially dangerous for the environment.

In Kanibadamski burial place were accepted, forbidden and obsolete pesticides from enterprises and households of Sugd region (Tajikistan) and bordering regions of Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Pesticides were buried and sometimes burned here. During 1973 and 1991, about 3000 tons of pesticides and 1000 tons of biopreparations were buried in Kanibadamski burial place. The majority of buried pesticides relates to persistent organic pollutants.  

Nowadays, the condition of this burial place is extremely bad, and it is the great problem. Lack of fencing and guarding in pesticides burial places made them accessible for local population and domestic animals. Sluice, built in former time in this burial place for collection of rain and mudtorrent flows, are destroyed. It contributes to contamination of low territories with pesticides, in case they are washed down by precipitations. Due to great deficit of pesticides, local population digs out these pesticides (including forbidden ones) illegally in burial places and then sells them under various names. Extraction of buried pesticides is realized both by hand and by technical equipments; the great scattering of pesticides, leading to contamination of burial places territory, is observed. All over the territory empty metallic and plastic containers can be found. High temperature during summer periods and intensive solar radiation contribute to decomposition of pesticides. Frequently recurring local winds and windstorms contribute to transmission of harmful substances and objectionable odor from the burial place to great distances.

The results of laboratory investigations show, that in the samples of pesticidesandsoil mixtures, taken in unturned plots, the sum of all pesticides varies in the limits of 2195 31831mg/kg, including POPs pesticides: from 327 mg/kg to 8024 mg/kg; the share of DDT and its metabolites is from 17 to 35%, and HCH isomers from 3 to 13% from total amount of pesticides. In the majority of samples (85%) was revealed dieldrin from 0,05 to 1,14 mg/kg, HCB, eptam, ovex, akrex and dursban.  

The results of Kanibadamski burial place examination, conducted in 2002, showed that the level of soil contamination decreases dependently on remoteness from burial place. In 100 m from burial place, the DDT and hexachloran availability exceeded the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) 8 times; in 1200 m, DDT availability exceeded MPC 3,5 times, and hexachloran 1,3 times. In 2 km, the revealed DDT amount didnt exceed the MPC. The surface contamination of surrounding territories with pesticides was the result of rain flows, melting of snow and mudflows, which washed away the upper soil layer of the burial place. By examination of water samples, taken from a well (54 m depth) located in Kanibadam city, these substances were not revealed.

The Executive Committee of the Kanibadam City Council made a Decision on 20 October 1989 that Kanibadamski burial place was closed, and neither pesticides nor their containers would be buried there any longer.

 


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