Hot-Spot and TEST methodologies
The project combines two methodologies developed by UNIDO: The Hot-Spot and the TEST methodologies.
The Hot-Spot methodology was developed during a GEF funded project on the Dnieper River basin (2000-2005). The objective of the approach is to assess and prioritize the sources of industrial effluent discharges (Hot Spot) in a river basin. Only point source pollutions are considered during this project. The following three steps are applied:
- Preliminary screening: The number of industries discharging their effluents into the Mekong River and its tributaries is significant. The goal of this step is to shortlist / reduce this number into a manageable number for the second step. The preliminary screening is based on available wastewater data such as biological oxygen demand (BOD5) or metal concentration. Toxicity coefficient (the ratio between the maximum allowed concentration of a substance and a standard) and effective mass of contaminant (the toxicity coefficient multiplied by the discharged load) are used to compare the discharges of different types of industries;
- Detailed evaluation: The objective of the evaluation is to gather information on the selected sites during the first step. Each hot spot will be evaluated based on the impact of its discharges on the following issues: (i) pollution control, (ii) water quality and human health, (iii) biodiversity, and (iv) socio-economic.; and,
- Prioritization: Based on the data collected, each hot spot will be scored. Higher score will be given to hot spot with higher negative impact. A rating is then established to classify the industrial Hot Spots based on their impact on the surface water.
The Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology (TEST) aims at improving the economic and environmental performance of a company. This integrated approach combines three specific tools:
- Cleaner Production assessment (CPA): this initial assessment focuses on the identification of the production processes as well as on the flow and quantity of material, energy, and water. Potential technology upgrade will also be assessed;
- Environmental Management Accounting (EMA): based on the description of the industrial process performed during the cleaner production assessment, environmental management accounting will evaluate the costs related to the environment occurring during the production process. This will help the company to identify new ways of saving money and improving its environmental performance at the same time;
- Environmental Management System (EMS): This tool, developed to improve the environmental performance, will give to the company a clear structure and way of organizing environmental affairs.
The implementation of the TEST methodology is the main activity of the project.
Following the Hot Spot and TEST components, a dissemination phase will take place. It will include the preparation of publications on the demonstration of the TEST approach in Cambodia, and the organization of dissemination seminars in cooperation with the SMEs and industrial associations. Hopefully, the replication of the TEST experience in neighboring countries will also be initiated during the dissemination process.