Protocol of Montreal
UNIDO activities related to the Protocol of Montreal aim at eliminating the substances harming the ozone layer and promoting the development of the industrial production and the improvement of the economic performance. Consequently UNIDO offers, from one hand, a technical support to developing countries in terms of regulation, strategy and programme development and, one the other hand, an institutional support and a technical assistance to the enterprises.
It is in this context that the programme of the elimination of Methyl Bromide in the strawberry, banana and flower sectors has been elaborated in Morocco, during the execution period 2002 - 2008.
Elimination of Methyl Bromide in the strawberry sector
This project has been put in place in partnership with the Ministry of Agriculture and maritime fishery, the Agronomical and Veterinary Institute Hassan II-Rabat and other local institutions, with a funding of USD 2 189 729.
The objective is to eliminate 259 tons of Methyl Bromide representing 20% of the total consumption level in Morocco in 1998. Different alternative methods have been experimented on a small and large scale in the framework of an Integrated Pest Management Programme, namely solarization alone or combined with the use of a chemical soil fumigant including 1,3-Dichloropropene or Metam Sodium, biofumigation and soil sterilisation via negative pressure steam.
The use of Metam sodium via drip irrigation system applied for 21 days prior to planting enabled the replacement of Methyl Bromide in the sector. Given the efficiency, cost and ease of application, this method has been adopted by a number of producers and lead to the elimination of all Methyl Bromide in December 2007. However other alternatives are being developed such as the use of Metam Potassium and strawberries soilless culture.
The results from the projects have the potential to be applied to other sectors such as cucurbitaceae culture (melon, watermelon ect.) which are also cultivated in the regions of strawberry culture ( Loukkos et Gharb).
Elimination of Methyl Bromide in the banana and cut flower sectors in Morocco
This project has been put in place in partnership with the French Agency for Development (AFD), the French Fund for the World Environment (FFEM) and the Agronomical and Veterinary Institute Hassan II-Rabat, with a funding of USD 673 973 for a duration of 5 years (2003-2008).
The objective is to eliminate 102 metric tons of Methyl Bromide of which 60 tons are in the production of bananas and 42 tons in the production of flowers.
Alternative methods such as post-plantation nematicids and other similar methods to the one used in the case of the strawberry sector have all been experimented in the framework of the Integrated Pest Management Programme.
In the case of cut flowers, the 1,3 D plus Chloropicrine have been applied in combination with the solarisation, essentially in the soilless culture, as a substitute to the Methyl Bromide and responding to major phytosanitary problems (nematods and soil fungi). This method was implemented progressively and leading to the total elimination in this sector in December 2006.
In the case of bananas, the 1,3 D method used for disinfecting the soil via the drip irrigation system has been developed as a compliment in the case of most post nematicids occurring in liquid or granulated post plantations (cadusaphos , phenamiphos). This method is characterised by its ability to respond to the nematode problem and to eliminate totally the Methyl Bromide in December 2007.