Agribusiness for Africa's Prosperity
The book outlines the current status of agribusiness and agro-industrial activities in Africa, and situates them in historical and global context. It analyses the opportunities for diversified growth, and assesses the existing and potential sources of demand growth for agribusiness development on the continent.
In recent years, a renewed focus on agriculture has been evident in policy and development agendas for the African continent, yet little knowledge has been generated on the inter-linkages of production, agro-industry and markets, as well as the potential and capacities for developing them.
Edited by Kandeh K. Yumkella, Patrick M. Kormawa, Torben M. Roepstorff and Anthony M. Hawkins and with contributions from a wide range of international experts, the book fills what UNIDO perceived as a significant gap in knowledge concerning these issues.
It was conceived as a resource for policymakers, agribusiness managers, and researchers in agribusiness development.
Patterns of Internationalization for Developing Country Enterprises (Alliances and Joint Ventures)
This training package is intended to be an instrument to help firms of developing countries improve their competitive position and grow domestically and internationally by linking with foreign partners, leveraging the relationships with them, and learning further in order to achieve technological self-sufficiency and innovative capabilities of their own.
Africa Foreign Investor Survey 2005
To determine the type and extent of technological capability building required for local firms to increase productivity through partnership with foreign investors, detailed company-level data is required. But this is often constrained by methodological problems and data limitations. This report attempts to fill such a vacuum. The central thesis of this report is that African countries need to study the motivations, operational characteristics, and dynamics of different investor groups, in order to be able to forge better promotion strategies responding to investors' needs. The Survey reveals a number of new trends, such as the emergence of foreign investors coming from the South. These firms are equipped to cope with the exigencies of doing business in the investment climate prevailing in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Chapter 1 introduces the subject matter, with a focus on the patterns of FDI flows and the role of technical cooperation programmes. Chapter 2 explains the methodology of the Survey. An overview of FDI in 15 countries is presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 highlights the size profiles of different subgroups of investors, while Chapter 5 analyses the performance, using selected indicators. Chapter 6 focuses on the impact of FDI on local economies, followed by highlights of the foreign trade profile in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 analyses location factors and indicates differences in their perception between 2003 and 2005 surveys. The report is intended to further a deeper understanding of the dynamics of FDI flows to Africa. Its findings are expected to influence the policy dialogue and the creation of the required determinants for enhanced FDI flows as a stimulus for dynamic economic development in African countries.
Industrial Development Report 2005. Capacity Building for Catching-up: Historical, Empirical and Policy Dimensions
From the perspective of domestic policy making and international cooperation, more effort - both in terms of ideas and resources - needs to be directed to structural issues so far largely neglected, where substantial degrees of freedom remains vis-á-vis the WTO rules. These issues largely relate to the building and co-evolution of domestic institutions that promote private sector development and domestic capability building. In a world increasingly driven by innovation, framework conditions that are a prerequisite of economic catch-up have been transformed so as to encompass the various dimensions of innovative development as key ingredient. With this in mind, the Special Topic Section of the Report first takes stock of lessons learned throughout modern history. On this basis, it then provides a framework for operational policy analysis as well as a methodology for the assessment of capability building needs to help overcome clear limitations in the current understanding of economic development. The Second Part of the Special Topic focuses on the interactions between the knowledge, business innovation and policy making subsystems, and addresses the policy capabilities that are necessary to overcome the often intactable problem of matching demand and supply of innovative resources. Two specific areas - food safety requirements and standards - are explored to highlight these interactions and test the suggested policy analysis framework. The Second Section of the Report reviews industrial activity worldwide including measures of technological advance following the tradition of previous Industrial Development Reports. The interaction of industrial and technological advance yields the significant structural differences between and within regions.
Economic Development and UN Reform: Towards a Common Agenda for Action. A Proposal in the Context of the Millennium Development Goals
This book is a practical proposal by the former Director-General of UNIDO, Carlos A. Magariños, to increase the policy coherence and operational effectiveness of the UN system in the field of economic development. Its core aim is to reorganize the economic development functions of the system by agreeing on a common business plan structured around shared programmatic priorities. He puts forward the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals as the priorities that can give shape to this effort. Magariños builds his proposal around his own experience of seven years at the helm of UNIDO, a period devoted to conducting a thorough reform of one of the specialized agencies of the UN. The success of this reform was based on sharpening the focus and deepening the content of UNIDO’s remit – a formula that could be applicable to other agencies in the field of economic development seeking to address the current needs of the developing countries and those with economies in transition. UNIDO’s experience – presented as a case study in the second part of this book – showed that, beyond a point, the achievement of further progress in delivering what the UN’s clients demand must rely no longer on the isolated effort of each agency, but rather on system-wide reforms throughout the UN. Magariños offers a roadmap here to guide those system-wide reforms.
Updating and Flesching out the Development Agenda
In a large number of countries where most of the population barely manages to earn subsistence wages, the success or failure of the economic agenda largely determines the fate of the political agenda, the quality of the democratic system and the potential for social advances. The conventional set of policy prescriptions does not ensure a positive mutual feedback between these two dimensions, the economic and the political. Such positive feedback depends vitally on productivity performance. This issue is at the core of the discussions reported in this book, which explores its variegated aspects with a view to proposing ways and means of approaching it.
Industrial Development Report 2004: Industrialization, Environment and the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa
The main focus of the report is on the dynamic processes of productivity growth, wealth creation and social advance in Sub-Saharan Africa, analyzed in the context of the internationally-agreed development goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration and the national poverty-reduction strategies. The report analyzes forward-looking approaches to industrial development that take advantage of environmentally-sound and advanced technologies. It argues that since Sub-Saharan African policy makers must face taxing development challenges while building up social and technological capabilities, it is crucial for the international community to help them meet their capacity-building needs, including those related to trade. The second part of the report updates and expands the Industrial Development Scoreboard, extending and improving its scope in terms of country coverage and timespan. The Scoreboard provides a global overview of industrial competitiveness in all its diversity, and assesses the main factors affecting it.
Industrial Development Report 2002/2003: Competing Through Innovation and Learning
he main focus of the report is on the dynamic processes of productivity growth, wealth creation and social advance in Sub-Saharan Africa, analyzed in the context of the internationally-agreed development goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration and the national poverty-reduction strategies. The report analyzes forward-looking approaches to industrial development that take advantage of environmentally-sound and advanced technologies. It argues that since Sub-Saharan African policy makers must face taxing development challenges while building up social and technological capabilities, it is crucial for the international community to help them meet their capacity-building needs, including those related to trade. The second part of the report updates and expands the Industrial Development Scoreboard, extending and improving its scope in terms of country coverage and timespan. The Scoreboard provides a global overview of industrial competitiveness in all its diversity, and assesses the main factors affecting it.
Fighting Marginalization through Sustainable Industrial Development: Challenges and Opportunities in a Globalizing World
Two panels were convened for UNIDO Industrial Development Forum, 2001, to discuss the topics selected for discussion: 'Economic and Social Development: How Best Can Industry Contribute to Fighting Poverty (Panel1)' and 'Global Norms and Local Manufacturing: Challenges and Opportunities (Panel 2)'. Papers presented by panelists dealt i.a. with development through trade and industry, investment, technology and development, the role of technology acquisition, UNIDO approach to fighting poverty (1), international standards as a means to development, international environmental conventions, business activities and environmental issues in Africa, international environmental frameworks and development with a case study of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (2). It is shown that technology innovation rather than capital accumulation will bring about longer-term growth and how technology management will influence future economic development.
International Practice in Technology Foresight
There is a need for new technology and industrial policies that balance competitiveness against unemployment, inequality, sustainability and risk. This requires new policy-making tools and technology foresight is a prominent tool among them. Technology foresight is a relatively new mechanism for strategic decision-making. Its wide application in certain countries dates back to the beginning of the 1990s and is highly regarded as a tool for anticipating future market demand and designing development strategies for transnational companies. A UNIDO Regional Conference on Technology Foresight for Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States was held in Vienna on 4 and 5 April 2001 to build awareness of the usefulness of technology foresight in designing strategies for technological development. This book is a selection of expert papers prepared for the conference.
Gearing Up for a New Development Agenda
This book contains the proceedings of UNIDO's Meeting on Marginalization vs. Prosperity - How to Improve and Spread the Gains of Globalization held in Venice, Italy, on 28-29 September 2000. The meeting was attended by a select group of outstanding decision-makers in government, international organizations and the private sector as well as scholars from Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe and North America. The book includes a keynote presentation by the former Director-General, Mr. Carlos A. Magariños, where he reviews the developing country experience with the conventional Development Agenda, reflects on its limitations and puts forwards suggestions on how to adapt it so that developing countries can better draw on globalisation to foster domestic development. The book also contains chapters on the multilateral trade system, the mobilization of technological capabilities, and 'natural capitalism' by reputable experts as well as a concluding chapter summarizing what was learnt from the meeting and identifying avenues for further efforts towards an updated Development Agenda. The book closes with a summary of the discussions held during the meeting.
Reforming the UN System: UNIDO's Need-Driven Model
This volume discusses the rationale for and against multilateral development cooperation, with particular attention to international industrial development during the post-cold war era. It also documents how UNIDO has successfully transformed itself to contribute effectively to the global supply of international public goods within the purview of its mandate. A foreword by U.K. Secretary Clare Short illustrates the good reception that such transformation has elicited amongst the donor community as well as its demonstration and potential spillover effects on the whole of the UN system. The book, which contains testimonies of ambassadors of UNIDO's stakeholder countries as well as contributions by Messrs. J. D.-Martinussen, former Head of the Danish Mission for UNIDO's assessment and R. Ricupero, Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference for Trade and Development (UNCTAD), can be expected to become an indispensable reference work for students of UN affairs and the international relations and development policy communities at large.
Industry for Growth into the New Millennium
This publication is intended to serve as a UNIDO contribution to the ongoing debate on the role of industrialization in socio-economic development in a globalizing world. This was the core issue of discussion in the Forum on Sustainable Industrial Development held in Vienna on 29 November - 1 December 1999 in conjunction with the eighth session of the General Conference of UNIDO. The publication is structured in two parts: Part A outlines the main issues discussed and conclusions drawn, while Part B presents the full papers and lectures delivered at the forum by the various panelists and other distinguished speakers.
African Industry 2000 : The Challenge of Going Global
The publication has been prepared by UNIDO as part of its research programme to provide analyses of the industrial development process and emerging policy issues of African industries, with particular emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa and least developed countries. The publication is part of the UNIDO Global Forum function and is intended to stimulate dialogue with African decision-makers concerned with industrial strategy, policy, project development and implementation. It is further intended to serve as a ready source of information for governments, investors, industrialists, international organisations, aid agencies, academics and research institutions. Chapter I provides an Overview of the issues analyzed in the report. Chapter II provides analyses of the overall context for growth and development in sub-Saharan Africa, while Chapter III analyzes the growth and structural change of African manufacturing in the country, sector and subsector levels. Chapter IV illustrates industrialization experience of selected countries, i.e. Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritius, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Cote dIvoire and Lesotho. Chapter V and VI analyze the link between industry and trade on the one hand and industry financing and investment on the other. Chapter VII examines South Africas role in enhancing industrial development in southern Africa. Chapter VIII analyzes the overriding importance of improving competitiveness of African industry, while Chapter IX examines industrial strategy and policy imperatives towards accelerating industrial development in sub-Saharan Africa in the 21st century in order to meet the challenge of going global.
Policies for Competition and Competitiveness : Case-Study of Industry in Turkey
his publication covers trade liberalization and its impact on the manufacturing industry of Turkey; liberalization and competition in the Turkish banking market; investment and export subsidies; legal issues; antidumping and antisubsidy policies; and 'new' trade theories and new trading opportunities for Turkey. The book contains a bibliography and statistical tables.
Using Statistics for Process Control and Improvement : An Introduction to Basic Concepts and Techniques
The publication sets out to provide a first introduction to, and basic guidance in, the use of statistics for process study and improvement. From the broad range of statistical tools available in this area, it selects a representative set for discussion, providing an outline of the objectives of their use and an operational description of underlying calculations and accompanying graphical techniques. These discussions are illustrated by frequent reference to industrial processes. In presenting these statistical methods, an attempt is made to outline, where appropriate, the broader context of management issues within which these methods have to be considered.
ICS Lectures on Industrial Applications of Lasers
The chief goal of the publication is to examine and describe the commonest types of laser in use in industry, while providing a basic scientific background. The various areas of industrial laser applications (cutting, welding, drilling, marketing and scribing), as well as the all-important subject of the laser market, are covered in detail in seven chapters. End-goal is provision of a working guide aligned with UNIDOs strategy of international cooperation towards developing and emerging economies. This strategy privileges a policy of sustainable development that balances the endogenous industrial capacity of development and emerging countries with environmental issues. In this context, the laser applications described here are tailored to the objectives of the high-tech industrial sectors of Latin America, and focus on the expanding endogenous capacity in the laser field in the Region.
Guidelines for Project Evaluation
This book is addressed primarily at government project evaluators and is divided into four parts. Part I reviews the reasons for the need for project evaluation, discusses in detail the various objectives that governments typically consider in their national plans, and what role public investment is likely to play in the realization of such objectives. Part II contains a detailed discussion of the shadow prices used in Part I. Part III discusses the meaning and significance of national parameters, social rates of discounting, social values of investment, the shadow prices of unskilled labour and foreign exchange, and the role of national planning in project formulation and evaluation. Part IV presents four case studies.
Practical Appraisal of Industrial Project Applications - Application of Social Cost-Benefit Analysis in Pakistan
This study represents a complementary publication to the Guide to Practical Project Appraisal (see below) and should be read in conjunction with it. It shows how the procedures discussed in the Guide can be applied to actual projects. The study comprises five chapters. Chapter I discusses the principles of social cost-benefit analysis; Chapter II examines the shadow prices relevant for appraising projects within a single country; Chapters III, IV and V apply shadow prices to the appraisal of three industrial projects in Pakistan.
Guide to Practical Project Appraisal - Social Benefit-Cost Analysis in Developing Countries
The Guide establishes a framework which brings together the most
important aspects of project appraisal. Its primary focus is on the
economic and social benefit-cost analysis of investment projects. The
reader is referred to basic references on the technical and financial
appraisal of projects at appropriate points.
Manual for Small Industrial Businesses : Project Design and Appraisal
This Manual is intended as an instrument for the promotion of small
industrial businesses. It provides guidance on the planning, analysis,
appraisal and implementation of investment projects, recognizing the
characteristics of small- and medium-scale businesses and avoiding the
trap of treating them merely as replicas of large firms. The Manual aims
at saving scarce financial resources by shifting much of the data
assessment work from the enterprise level to the subsectoral level,
where profiles of successful small businesses can be created that are
then used as a reference when assessing individual projects. The
Manual is intended to complement the Manual for the Preparation of
Industrial Feasibility Studies (second edition), and it should be used in
conjunction with the COMFAR III Expert software.
Manual for the Preparation of Industrial Feasibility Studies
The Manual is divided into three parts: Pre-investment studies and the investment project cycle; The feasibility study; and Annexes. The first part deals with categories and basic aspects of pre-investment studies. The second part constitutes the core of the Manual, and deals with such issues as market research, raw materials, engineering and technology, organization and overhead costs, human resources, implementation planning and financial analysis and investment appraisal. The final part of the Manual offers additional supporting material, including a case study, together with description of techniques for assessment and projection of data. The Manual offers the unique advantage of its working forms and schedules being fully compatible with the third generation of UNIDO's Computer Model for Feasibility Analysis and Reporting, COMFAR.
Manual on Technology Transfer Negotiations
This Manual comprises 19 modules covering a broad range of topics of critical importance to technology users, administrators and managers. It provides assistance in the choice of technology strategies and in the identification, selection and evaluation of technologies. It also addresses issues of technology negotiation, including negotiated opportunities for technology absorption, learning and innovation. In addition, it provides practical approaches and methodological tools for the analysis of legal, technical and economic aspects of technology transfer and acquisition at the enterprise level. The Manual is universally applicable, and is a valuable tool for technology users from both developing and developed countries, and acknowledges the legitimate interests of both users and owners of technology. This balance was assured through the participation of the Licensing Executives Society in the validation of the Manual.
Guidelines for Infrastructure Development through Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Projects
The Manual covers the entire spectrum of financial and legal issues faced by government authorities and project managers in the development of BOT projects, while offering developing countries the basic orientation needed to design effective BOT strategies. The Guidelines also provide essential practical information on the structure and procedures of BOT arrangements and are intended to help reduce the time and costs involved in developing and contracting BOT projects. The Guidelines contain chapters on the following subjects: introduction to the BOT concept; phases of a BOT project; economic framework for BOT schemes; the Government's role in providing for successful BOT projects; transfer of technology and capability building through BOT projects; procurement issues and selection of sponsors; financial and economic appraisal of BOT projects; risk identification and management; financial structuring of BOT projects; the contract package; the project agreement; the construction agreement; operation and maintenance contracts; transfer of ownership; and factors that determine success.
Protocols for Environment and Health Assessment of Mercury Released by Artisanal and Small-Scale Miners
Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASM) is a poverty-driven activity that provides an important source of livelihood for rural communities. The amount of mercury lost by 10 to 15 million small-scale gold miners can reach as much as 1,000 tonnes/a probably contaminating 100 million people worldwide. This document brings simple, replicable and sustainable techniques to be used by environmental and health agencies, mining-related institutions and researchers for monitoring mercury pollution. However, it has to be stressed that these Environmental and Health Assessments are effective decision-making tools to support mitigation actions, and these are badly needed.
Training Package : Integrated Coastal Area Management
The Training Package on Integrated Coastal Area Management has two parts. Part I, which contains 10 modules, consists of lectures on various aspects of coastal area management. Part II contains the visual aids that accompany each of the 10 modules. Whereas in the past, the approach to planning and management of coastal resources was traditionally sectoral, nowadays, it is oriented towards strategic planning and integrated management. This methodological shift in various of multi-disciplinarity does not quite substitute for the notion of targeting economic activities, but rather complements the manner in which resources in coastal areas are managed. Although the training package focuses on the Mediterranean region per se, the concepts, issues and examples highlighted within most modules may readily be 'imported' into other coastal regions and adapted to local circumstances. This training package seeks to complement similar works on the subject, but may also be utilized separately to conduct, for example, a training course on aspects of integrated coastal area management (ICAM). Each module is a complete course, thus allowing trainers to choose and mix modules according to training needs and requirements.
Bioprospecting and Strategies for Industrial Exploitation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Workshop Proceedings, 22-27 September 1997
This workshop focused on the possibility of the non-destructive exploitation of forests, through tapping renewable resources that have specific application to the production of new drugs (anti-cancer and anti-infection agents). Three central issues are addressed: improving public awareness of the importance of environmental conservation; introduction of an administrative structure that ensures fair compensation for indigenous communities; recognition, recording and compensation of indigenous knowledge and wisdom and introduction of a system that facilitates these steps. The book gives a global perspective on bioprospecting, a general background to the subject, a summary of the conclusions, and full coverage of the presentations, reports, and discussions. The sessions described cover in-country research and development through co-operative agreements involving capacity building, collaborations, partnerships, and strategic business alliances; acquisition or transfer of appropriate technology for material processing and product development; and international bioprospecting arrangements.
Manuel qualité pour les filiéres cotonniéres UEMOA
Under the EU Quality Support Programme, the Version 1 of the UEMOA Cotton Quality Manual was published in July 2006 in French, with the aim to help the cotton sector in UEMOA and other African countries. The UEMOA (L'Union Economique et Monetaire Ouest Africaine - West African Economic and Monetary Union) comprises 8 countries, including Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo. An estimated fifteen million people work in the cotton sector in Africa. Ten million of these are in the UEMOA zone. UEMOA countries account for around 800,000 tons or 4% of the world annual cotton production.
The Manual consists of six documents, including one "Quality Plan" and five "Technical Guides", namely (1) Production of Quality Cotton, (2) Ginning of Quality Cotton, (3) African Cotton Quality Standards, (4) Classification of Cotton Fibre, and (5) Cotton Trade Practices. The "Quality Plan" is a transverse document, which contains the procedures associated to the implementation of the activities described in the five "Technical Guides". These six documents are complementary and constitute a complete set, packed inside a hardbound bookcase. They are used by all the stakeholders in the cotton sector in Africa as a practical tool and reference for continuous quality improvement and valorisation of cotton.
Woodworking Machinery : A Manual on Selection Options
This manual incorporates comprehensive technical information on 22 of the most important woodworking processes to be used by trainers and professionals in preparation of investment analyses and proposals. For each process it provides an outline of a typical machine, indicative price range, data on specifications, standard and optional equipment and accessories, machine description and operation, safety features, maintenance, spare parts and requirements for labour, auxiliary items and indicative space. The 103 options are arranged in order of increasing sophistication from hand-held, portable tools to automated machinery with EUMABOIS standard reference numbers to facilitate specification and tendering. For some items, example work pieces and typical cutting tools are shown to aid in explaining to students the full range of possible operations. The manual is produced (a) in a loose-leaf format to enable expansion of coverage and (b) also as a CD-ROM with a search function and the facility to download drawings onto a word file and prepare a 'virtual factory'. It is intended that this manual will form an important data base along with others describing wood processing production parameters for the 'Wood Industry Project Navigator Database' system under development by UNIDO.
Timber Construction for Developing Countries : Introduction to Wood and Timber Engineering
This handbook deals with such matters as natural forestry resources, timber engineering and its applications in developing countries, wood technology, the technical and commercial know-how requirements of timber engineers, the mechanical properties of wood and the seasoning of structural timber. It contains a bibliography, statistical tables, graphs, diagrams and other illustrations.