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GC20 photo Supply Chains


Promoting green industrialization and establishing sustainable value chains for low carbon technologies is pivotal in the effort to decarbonize the energy and transportation sectors, thus advancing towards the global net-zero target.

The importation of technologies like solar and storage batteries has surged over the last decade, yet supply chains for these technologies remain largely concentrated on a handful of countries. This dependency is particularly pronounced among lower-middle-income countries and will present a bottleneck for accelerating the energy transition. The participation of developing countries in global supply chains remains relatively limited. For instance in the solar industry, the International Solar Alliance (ISA) illustrates that solar manufacturing in the Global South remains limited and is primarily represented by South East Asia. Data from the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) also reveals analogous trends in other critical value chains, such as wind and battery manufacturing, with China and the U.S. leading the production capacities, followed by the EU, Japan, and South Korea.

The energy transition presents an opportunity for developing countries to drive green industrialization especially with the resource endowment across the African continent.  Key minerals are essential in the production of clean energy technologies, yet many nations export them without value addition through processing and refining. Middle- and low-income countries can increase their domestic value addition by localizing mineral processing and refining. These countries can also leverage their labor cost advantage to significantly reduce the manufacturing expenses of clean energy technologies. However, achieving this requires a conducive policy and enabling environment including investments in workforce upskilling to enable the production of clean technology.

Discussion Points

  • How does the increase in the projected demand for critical raw materials and clean energy technologies open opportunities for the global south to reduce imports through local manufacturing and contribute to secure resilient and sustainable global supply chains?
  • What implications do policies of Global North countries have for the participation of the Global South?
  • Which roles do governments have in supporting Global South countries to develop supply chains for clean energy technologie?
  • How can international partnerships and technology collaboration support a diversification of supply chains?
  • How can development cooperation effectively support sustainable and resilient supply chains for the energy transition?


The side event will discuss the interlinkage of energy policy and industrial policy to advance energy, climate and development goals. It will examine opportunities and solutions that may be promoted nationally, regionally and globally to advance green industrialization and support the diversification of supply chains for low carbon technologies.

It will discuss how the projected demand for critical raw materials and clean energy technologies open opportunities for the global south to reduce imports through increased local manufacturing and to contribute to secure resilient and sustainable global supply chains.

The session will also touch upon recommendations on how development cooperation can effectively support sustainable and resilient supply chains for the energy transition.

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